Nociception is the neural response related to noxious stimuli. Many neural systems in the brain and spinal cord (e.g. opiates, neuropeptide Y, serotonin, NMDA, GABA, etc.) are involved. Subtle changes in any of these systems (by pharmacological or genetic manipulation) may lead to changes in the sensitivity or threshold for stimuli. There are many types of pain that can be categorized according to their characteristics or causes: for example acute pain, inflammatory (often chronic) pain, neuropathic pain, and others.
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